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The theory behind EMDA is relatively simple:
A medicine (chemotherapy, usually ‘Mitomycine’) is inserted through a catheter that is placed into your bladder. In addition, two sponge electrodes are placed on your abdomen. Both the catheter (which is equipped with a small metal plate) and the sponge electrodes are connected to a device that can generate a gentle direct current.
An electric field (the potential difference between the metal plate on the catheter and the electrodes on your abdomen) ensures that the positive-charged medication moves towards the negative-charged pole (i.e. the sponge electrodes on your abdomen) following the line of least resistance.

It has been scientifically proved that, by applying EMDA, the medication penetrates deeper into the bladder wall, which considerably decreases the chance of the tumour recurring after the operation.
emda_current flow

How does EMDA work?

In the laboratory, with genuine tissue, this showed the following:
(The medication that is inserted into the bladder in order to prevent the tumour recurring is blue)
medication in bladderwall without emda
medication in bladderwall with emda
Without EMDA
EMDA logo
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Optimal treatment of superficial bladder tumours

Medication in the bladder as seen inthe laboratory: